A short history of the physical education profession including its origins, early pioneers, and contributions to society.
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The Early Years
The first recorded instance of physical education
The first recorded instance of physical education was in China in 386 BC. The Chinese philosopher Confucius promoted exercise for students during their leisure time. In Greece, around 2000 years ago, physical education was considered an essential component of a child’s education. The Greeks believed that physical activity was important for both the mind and the body and that it could help produce well-rounded citizens.
The Romans also placed a high value on physical activity and it was an integral part of a child’s education. Unfortunately, after the fall of the Roman Empire, interest in physical education declined. It wasn’t until the late 1800s that physical education began to regain popularity.
During the Industrial Revolution, there was a growing concern about the health of factory workers. Factory owner Robert Owen suggested that workers should have one hour each day for either sport or recreation. Other factory owners quickly realized that happy and healthy workers were more productive workers. As a result, they began to offer their employees more opportunities for recreational activities, including organized sports.
In the United States, interest in physical education really took off in the early 1900s. This was thanks in large part to President Theodore Roosevelt who was an advocate for fitness and healthy living. Roosevelt believed that every child should have the opportunity to participate in sports and other forms of exercise.
The origin of the term “physical education”
The term physical education is believed to have originated in Greece around the time of the Olympic Games. At that time,’physical’ referred to anything related to the body, and ‘education’ was a process of nurturing or development. The term physical education has been used consistently since the late 1800s.
The Modern Era
The first physical education curriculum in the United States
The first physical education curriculum in the United States was created in 1813 by Dr. Calvin Mackenzie at Bowdoin College. Mackenzie’s program consisted of six half-hour periods of gymnastics and light calisthenics per week. This program was the first of its kind in the United States, and Mackenzie is considered to be the father of American physical education.
In 1820, Thomas Jefferson created a similar program at the University of Virginia. Jefferson’s program included daily walks, horseback riding, swimming, wrestling, and fencing. Jefferson is credited with creating the first collegiate physical education program in the United States.
The first physical education department in the United States was established in 1866 at Yale University. The department was created by Timothy Dwight, who also served as the department’s first chairman. Dwight’s department offered a wide variety of activities including calisthenics, rowing, gymnastics, and track and field.
The middle of the 19th century saw an increased interest in public health, and there was a corresponding increase in physical education programs in secondary schools and colleges. These programs were designed to train students to be physically fit for military service or other forms of employment.
The late 19th century and early 20th century saw a decline in interest in physical education. This was due to several factors including the rise of industrialization and child labor laws that limited the amount of time children could spend working.Physical Education didn’t see a big uptick until after World War I when there was an emphasis on recreation and leisure activities as a means of promoting health and fitness
The development of professional organizations
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, several professional organizations were developed to help promote and standardize physical education. In 1885, the National Education Association (NEA) recognized the importance of physical activity and began offering annual clinics for teachers. The American Association for the Advancement of Physical Education (AAAPE) was founded in 1890 and later became the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD). This organization sponsored research, developed curriculum standards and conducted teacher certification programs. Other organizations, such as the YMCA and YWCA, also offered educational opportunities for physical educators.
The Contemporary Era
Since the 1800s, the physical education profession has gone through several changes. In the early days, physical education was more focused on teaching people how to be physically fit. However, as our understanding of the human body and mind have grown, so has the focus of physical education. These days, physical education is more focused on teaching people how to be healthy and how to live a healthy lifestyle.
The rise of fitness culture
The contemporary era of physical education began in the 1970s, a time when fitness culture was on the rise in America. This was due in part to the perceived link between physical fitness and health, as well as the popular belief that exercising could lead to weight loss. The American government also played a role in promoting fitness culture by encouraging participation in physical activity through initiatives like the President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports.
As fitness culture grew in popularity, so did the physical education profession. Physical educators began to focus their attention on teaching students how to lead a physically active lifestyle, rather than simply preparing them for competition. This shift meant that physical education classes became more inclusive, with activities and exercises that could be enjoyed by all students regardless of ability level.
Today, the focus of physical education is still on promoting physical activity and helping students develop the skills they need to lead a healthy life. However, there has been an increased emphasis on using physical education as a way to combat childhood obesity. This has led to changes in the way that some physical educators teach, with a greater emphasis on providing students with opportunities to be active throughout the day.
The role of physical education in the 21st century
The 21st century has seen a shift in the focus of physical education from teaching students the skills needed to participate in traditional sports to helping them develop the knowledge and skills needed to lead a physically active life.
The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) has developed standards for what students should know and be able to do at each grade level. These standards are based on the premise that physical activity is essential to the health and well-being of all people.
Physical education programs in the 21st century should provide opportunities for all students to:
-Develop physical literacy
-Participate in a variety of physical activities
-Develop an understanding of movement concepts, principles, and strategies
-Learn how to assess their own level of physical fitness and set goals for improvement
-Engage in meaningful physical activity experiences that are enjoyable and challenging